Two-dimensional simulation of pollutant dispersion at the confluence of Diyala river with Tigris river using CFD technique
Keywords:Water dispersion, BOD, Tigris river, Diyala river, CFD
The main aim of this paper is to simulate the pollutant dispersion behavior from Diyala River as a tributary on the Tigris River using a two-dimensional numerical model. Numerical computations were achieved using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code, which is based on the finite volume approach. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) was selected as a pollutant for the simulation process as it is a very important water quality parameter in rivers and streams. It is presumed that BOD is mixed throughout the system as a passive scalar. Furthermore, the volume of fluid (VOF) and user-defined scalar (UDS) methods were used in this study. VOF method was used to allow the free surface to deform freely with the underlying turbulence. The numerical simulation results show a good fit with observed data. The findings of this study may provide a proper basis for water quality management in rivers.
Abbas, N., Wasimi, S. A., & Al-Ansari, N. (2016). Impacts of climate change on water resources in Diyala River Basin, Iraq. J Civ Eng Archit, 10, 1059-1074.
Abderrezzak, K. E., Ata, R., & Zaoui, F. (2015). One-dimensional numerical modelling of solute transport in streams: The role of longitudinal dispersion coefficient. Journal of Hydrology, 527, 978-989.
Abed, B. S., Daham, M. H. & Ismail, A. H. (2021). Water quality modelling and management of Diyala river and its impact on Tigris River. Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, 16.1, 122-135.
Al-Rubaie, F., & Al-Musawi, N. (2019). The Effect of Diyala River Water Quality on the Quality of Tigris River Water using GIS Mapping. Journal of Engineering, 25(10), 71-87.
Babaali, H., Shamsai, A., & Vosoughifar, H. (2015). Computational Modeling of the Hydraulic Jump in the Stilling Basin with Convergence Walls Using CFD Codes. Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, 4(2), 381-395.
Dawood, S. A., & Rasheed, S. A. (2005). Dispersion of conservative pollutants in Diyala river applying one dimensional model. J Eng, 11, 213-219.
Ghalib, H. B. (2017). Groundwater chemistry evaluation for drinking and irrigation utilities in east Wasit province, Central Iraq. Applied Water Science, 7(7), 3447-3467.
Ismail, A. H., & Abed, G. A. (2013). BOD and DO modeling for Tigris River at Baghdad city portion using QUAL2K model. Journal of Kerbala University (Scientific), 3, 257 -273.
Ismail, A. H., Abed, B. S., & Abdul-Qader, S. (2014). Application of Multivariate Statistical Techniques in the surface water quality Assessment of Tigris River at Baghdad stretch. Journal of Babylon University, 22, 450-462.
Ismail, A. H., Hassan, G., & Sarhan, A. H. (2020). Hydrochemistry of shallow groundwater and its assessment for drinking and irrigation purposes in Tarmiah district, Baghdad governorate, Iraq. Groundw Sustain Dev, 10-100300, from https://doi.org/10.1016/j. gsd.2019.100300.
Ismail, A. H., & Muntasir, A. H. (2018). Estimation of river Tigris dispersivities using a steady‑state numerical model. Appl Water Sci, 8-108.
Ismail, A. H., & Robescu, D. (2016). Pollutant dispersion of S-shaped open channel flow with a side discharge using computational fluid dynamic, 14th International Industrial Simulation Conference, ISC 2016.
Ismail, A. H., & Robescu, D. (2017). Three-dimensional simulation of pollutant dispersion of an open channel flow with a side discharge. U.P.B. Sci. Bull., Series: D, 79(4), 283-294.
Ismail, A. H., Shareef, M. A., & Alatar, F. M. (2019). Hydrochemistry of Groundwater and its Suitability for Drinking and Irrigation in Baghdad, Iraq. Environ Process, 6, 543-560.
Kannel, P. R., Lee, S., Lee, Y. S., Kanel, S. R., & Pelletier, G. J. (2007). Application of automated QUAL2Kw for water quality modeling and management in the Bagmati River, Nepal. Ecological Modelling, 202(3-4), 503-517.
Khaldi, N., Marzouk, S., Mhiri, H., & Bournot, P. (2015). Distribution characteristics of pollutant transport in a turbulent two-phase flow. Environ Sci Pollut Res, 22, 6349-6358.
Khaldi, N., Mhiri, H., & Bournot, P. (2014). Prediction of pollutant dispersion in turbulent two-phase flows. Environ Fluid Mech, 14, 647-662.
MOWR, Ministry of Water Resources. (2021). Data on the flowrate and hydraulic information of Tigris River and Diyala River (2001-2021).
Popescu, I., Cioaca, E., Pan, Q., Jonoski, A., & Hanganu, J. (2015). Use of hydrodynamic models for the management of the Danube Delta wetlands: The case study of Sontea-Fortuna ecosystem. Environmental science & policy, 46, 48-56.
Zowain, A., Ismail, A. H. (2015). Management of Salinity Issues in Iraq's Agricultural Sector Using SWOT Analysis. Engineering and Technology Journal, 33(3), 644-658.